The present review shows the outer surface morphology of Lugaro cells as seen by scanning electron microscopy. They are easily characterized by their location beneath Purkinje cells. Confocal laser scanning microscopy and immunochemistry technique for calbindin revealed positive immunoreaction for cell body, and axonal and dendritic processes, and calcium binding proteins. Immunopositive reactions for Synapsin-I, Synapsin I and PSD-95, GluR1, CamKII alpha, and N-cadherin are found. Synapsin-I immunopositivity shows the localization of presynaptic terminals. Synapsin-I and PSD-95 shows the precise localization of Lugaro cell pre- and postsynaptic junctions of axosomatic and axodendritic contacts. GluR1 immunopositive reaction indicates that Lugaro cells have functional ionotropic glutamate receptors. CaMKII alpha immunopositivity of Lugaro cell suggest its participation as a molecular switch for long-term information storage, and serving as a molecular basis of long-term synaptic memory. N-cadherin immunoposit ivity demonstrates the significance of this cell adhesion molecule for Lugaro cell synaptic structure and function.